DLF Digital Library Assessment Metadata Working Group DLF

DLF Metadata Assessment Working Group


Environmental Scan

This page was last updated on October 13, 2020. Please be aware that the links that are contained in this page may no longer work or may redirect to an unexpected site.

This was the first area of work for the DLF Metadata Assessment group in 2016. We performed a review of literature, tools, presentations, and organizations on the topics of metadata assessment and metadata quality with a focus on—but not limited to—digital repositories descriptive metadata.

Download a version of this resource as a PDF (static snapshot from fall 2016)

Early draft and notes for the Environmental Scan (not actively maintained)

Organizations & Groups


As of 2016, a wide range of groups are addressing issues related to metadata and issues related to assessment of library services, but relatively few are directly working on the assessment of metadata. Here are some organizations and resources of interest collected.


Europeana is actively working to develop quality standards for metadata. The Data Quality Committee is addressing many issues related to metadata, including required elements for ingest of Europeana Data Model (EDM) data and meaningful metadata values in the context of use. “This work includes measures for information value of statements (informativeness, degree of multilinguality…) “ (p. 3). Of particular note is the committee’s statement on data quality: “The Committee considers that data quality is always relative to intended use and cannot be analysed or defined in isolation from it, as a theoretical effort” (p. 1).

Europeana’s Report and Recommendations from the Task Force on Metadata Quality is an essential read, outlining broad issues related to metadata quality as well as specific recommendations for the Europeana community. This report defines good metadata quality as “1. Resulting from a series of trusted processes 2. Findable 3. Readable 4. Standardised 5. Meaningful to audiences 6. Clear on re-use 7. Visible” (p. 3). In addition, the report explores hindrances to good metadata quality: lack of foresight for online discovery, treating metadata as an afterthought, lack of funding and resources, describing digitized items with little information, and not understanding the harvesting requirements.

The Task Force on Enrichment and Evaluation’s Final Report provides ten recommendations for successful enrichment strategies. See Valentine Charles and Juliane Stiller’s presentation Evaluation of Metadata Enrichment Practices in Digital Libraries provides additional background information for this report.

Hydra Groups

Update: In 2017 the Hydra Project’s name was changed to Samvera. The Hydra Metadata Interest Group has multiple subgroups that have developed best practices for technical metadata, rights metadata, Segment of a File structural metadata, and Applied Linked Data. The best practices and metadata application profiles developed by these groups can help in the assessment of metadata quality, but the work of these groups has not yet explicitly included metadata assessment. The Hydra Metrics Interest Group is involved in the use of scholarly and web metrics to assess the performance of various aspects of Hydra instances.

Society of American Archivists (SAA)

Although very little directly related to metadata assessment is available from the SAA, the 2010 presentation by Joyce Celeste Chapman, “User Feedback and Cost/Value Analysis of Metadata Creation” contains many findings that merit consideration. This project studied the information seeking behavior of researchers and regarded successful searches as indicative of the value of metadata. The fields used most often by researchers were identified and the time needed to create metadata for those fields was analyzed in order to determine if the time spent creating metadata was related to the frequency of researcher use.

ALA ALCTS (American Library Association Association for Library Collection & Technical Services) [now ALA CORE] “Big Heads”

(i.e. “ALA ALCTS Technical Services Directors of Large Research Libraries IG (Big Heads)”)

The Final Report of the Task Force on Cost/Value Assessment of Bibliographic Control defines the value of metadata as:

  1. Discovery success
  2. Use
  3. Display understanding
  4. Ability of our data to operate on the open web and interoperate with vendors/ suppliers in the bibliographic supply chain
  5. Ability to support the FRBR user tasks
  6. Throughput/Timeliness
  7. Ability to support the library’s administrative/management goals

The use of “ability to support the FRBR user tasks” as a criterion for assessment of metadata quality was cited in Chapman’s (2010) presentation as an indicator of metadata quality.

The report found that describing the cost of metadata is extremely difficult, especially when considering the various operations that support and enable the creation of metadata. The authors acknowledge that the nebulous definitions of value outlined in the report also create challenges for defining what is meant by “cost” in this context.


(i.e. “US Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Association”)

The 2015 presentation “Understanding User Discovery of ETD: Metadata or Full-Text, How Did They Get There?” describes the use of web traffic for metadata analysis. The percentage of successful searches that included terms from an item’s descriptive metadata vs. the percentage of successful searches that included terms from the full text of an item was analyzed to determine how often descriptive metadata contributed to the discovery of an item.

ALA ALCTS (American Library Association Association for Library Collection & Technical Services)/ALA LITA (American Library Association Library Information Technology Association) [now ALA CORE] Metadata Standards

This joint committee has recently drafted “Principles for Evaluating Metadata Standards”, which provides seven principles intended to apply to the “development, maintenance, governance, selection, use, and assessment of metadata standards” by LAM (libraries, archives and museums) organizations. The principles recommend metadata standards that meet real-world needs, are open, flexible, and actively maintained, and that support network connections and interoperability. A recent committee blog post summarizes and responds to public comments made on the initial draft, with a subsequent draft expected later this spring. The final draft of the “Principles for Evaluating Metadata Standards,” which was not evaluated as part of the 2016 Environmental Scan, was added to this page in 2020.


Presentations reviewed during the 2016 environmental scan are organized below in chronological order.


DLF Forum

Cushman Exposed! Exploiting Controlled Vocabularies to Enhance Browsing and Searching of an Online Photograph Collection
Dalmau, Michelle; Riley, Jenn.

An interesting looking at early metadata quality control/assessment.



Can Metadata be Quantified?
Harper, Corey.

This presentation shares preliminary results of a study of converting data on metadata into numeric and visual representations, based on a case study using DPLA Providers’ metadata.


Koster, Lukas
Notes on presentation

A presentation about the blog post “Analysing library data flows for efficient innovation.”

ALA Annual

We’ve Gone MAD: Launching a Metadata Analysis & Design Unit at the University of Virginia Library
Glendon, Ivy.

A look at the background and results of a reorganization of metadata work at the UVA Library. This evaluation of university and library needs in relation to metadata services resulted in a new unit that focuses on a holistic approach that hopes to ensure consistency across systems, library units, and the university. An approach that includes metadata assessment as a part of overall plan.


Metadata Quality Control for Content Migration: The Metadata Migration Project at the University of Houston
Weidner, Andrew; Wu, Annie.
Slides & Paper

This is a report on a migration project that resulted in the development of scripts to create reports on existing metadata used to identify problems and allow for cleanup and preparation for the metadata to be published as linked data.

Tennessee SHAREfest

Metadata Quality Analysis
Harlow, Christina.
GitHub Repository for Interactive Presentation

This is an introduction to resources that can help with extracting metadata for reviewing for quality analysis.
Tools covered: MARCEdit, OpenRefine, Python Scripting, and Catmandu

DLF Forum

Statistical DPLA: Metadata Counting and Word Analysis
Harper, Corey
Session Notes

This is a report on progress of a research project that focuses on word analysis in DPLA metadata to discover relationships in word pattern usage among DPLA providers versus search terms used versus social media language used in reference to DPLA collections. The research results will help inform best practices in metadata implementation.

Automating Controlled Vocabulary Reconciliation
Neatrour, Anna; Myntti, Jeremy

A case study at the University of Utah of metadata cleanup approaches, including OpenRefine, as applied to controlled vocabulary.

ALA LITA(American Library Association Library Information Technology Association)[now ALA CORE] Forum

Data Remediation: A View from the Trenches
Harlow, Christina; Wilson. Heather
Slides & Resources

This session was a sharing of the difficulties we still face in automating data cleanup processes and a look at tools that can complement each other and, when used together, can solve some of the challenges. Tools discussed include OpenRefine, MARCEdit, PyMARC, Python, Catmandu, Google Apps Scripts, SUSHI scripting, and API calls.


Evaluation of Metadata Enrichment Practices in Digital Libraries: Steps towards Better Data Enrichments
Charles, Valentine; Stiller, Juliane.

A look at semantic enrichment tools and their effectiveness within. Covers an overview and evaluation of the why and what of semantic enrichment, using the Europeana Cultural Heritage domain as an example. See the Report on Enrichment and Evaluation.



Measuring Your Metadata Preconference at Code4Lib 2016
Averkamp, Shawn; Miller, Matt; Rubinow, Sara; & Hadro, Josh.
Information on workshop

This was a hands-on workshop that explored visualization and analysis of metadata using Python and d3. The workshop notes point to other helpful resources. An outline of the workshop can be found here.

Get Your Recon
Harlow, Christina

This presentation discusses the possibility of more efficient methods of preparing library data for the linked data environment beyond the traditional manual cleanup workflows.


Perspectives on Data and Quality.
Gueguen, Gretchen; Harper, Corey; & Stanton, Chris.
Session information

This presentation offers three perspectives on DPLA data: an overview of the data, usage, and language in the descriptions; the strategies involved in data quality control across the collection; and data quality in aggregation.


The publications review described in this section was initially completed in 2016 and updated in 2019. We continue to actively collect citations of interest in the Metadata Assessment Zotero Group and welcome any additions or updates you would like to offer to that list.


The group initially surveyed more than 50 documents in 2016 produced as early as 2002, ranging from journal articles, white papers, and reports to blog posts and wikis. In 2019, the group reviewed more than 100 articles added to the Metadata Assessment Zotero Group since 2016 to determine if changes or additions should be made to this list of publications of note.

Metadata assessment involves articulating conceptual criteria and frameworks as well as developing actionable methods to collect specific information about collections. The documents we surveyed tend to focus on the following themes:

Exploring what metadata quality means in large-scale aggregators, such as Europeana and DPLA, is another topic discussed in recent work.

Bruce and Hillmann’s 2004 article, “The Continuum of Metadata Quality,” which defines a framework with seven categories of metadata quality (completeness, accuracy, conformance to expectations, logical consistency, accessibility, timeliness, provenance), is particularly noteworthy for influencing the subject’s subsequent exploration.

In 2013, Hillmann and Bruce revisited their original framework in the context of the linked open data environment, highlighting additional considerations such as licensing, correct/consistent data modeling, and the implications of linked data technology on definitions of metadata quality.

A common theme across the publications we reviewed is the subjective nature of “quality,” since its definition is dependent upon local context and content as well as institutional goals. According to Hillmann and Bruce (2013), conceptual criteria are “the lenses that help us know quality when we see it.” Through building a community of practice for assessing metadata quality, we will be better positioned to have a shared vision, one that provides for the sustainability of our resources and meets the needs of our users and systems.

Publications of Note

Citations gathered by the publications review group are available in a Zotero group library (https://www.zotero.org/groups/metadata_assessment), which serves as a collaborative shared repository of all the resources explored as part of this process.

We have identified a subselection of these articles, listed below, which we recommend as good starting points for librarians interested in learning about metadata assessment. The articles review foundational concepts, present sound frameworks for analysis, cover particular common aspects of assessment, and/or have been influential in other research.

Full Citations List

A full citations list can be found in the Metadata Assessment Zotero Group. Your additions and updates to the list are welcome.



In 2016, DLF Metadata Assessment Working Group surveyed and analyzed:

This environmental scan captured information about the use, status, and application of 20 tools. In 2017, the initial list of tools gathered as part of the environmental scan was reviewed with an eye to developing resources for tool testing.

Testing metadata assessment tools is slated to begin late 2017. Subsequent steps include the development of a repository for metadata assessment tools. The repository would include information gathered from the environmental scan as well as data and resources related to the evaluation of metadata asssessment tools.

How to Read Our Tools Document

The Tools Documentation, developed in 2016, is intended to aid the evaluation of tools for potential use in metadata assessment.

The documentation presents general information about each tool, such as its purpose and type along with a descriptive summary and URL. The documentation also provides details that may influence adoption, such as technical requirements, support, and budgetary considerations. Links to source code and documentation are included for further research.

Tools Overview Sheet
Columns Definitions Values
Lit Review ID Identifier to track Tool description across multiple tabs MA-### (abbreviation for Metadata Assessment with incrementing number)
Assessment Grouping Description of emerging trends identified in the group’s literature review which tool supports/could support Free text
Tool Name Name of the tool assessed Free text
Designed For Description of intended use based on documentation or user feedback efficiency and assessment across large datasets, assessing metadata, statistical computing, graphics, integrated development environment (IDE), data visualization, business intelligence, sharing and testing [datasets]
Type Type of tool assessed programming language or library, stand-alone script, tool, tools package, dataset, computing framework
URL General URL for tool or tool information URL
Abstract Brief summary of the tool, its significant characteristics and relevant considerations Free text
Other Additional notes field Free text
Tool Creator/Maintainer Individual or organization responsible for tool creation and/or maintenance Free text
Source code / download URL Destination for source code or download URL
Documentation Destination for tool documentation URL
GUI Designates if tool has a graphical user interface y,n
CLI Designates if tool is available for the command line y,n
Free? Designates if tool is freely available y,n
OSS or proprietary Designates if tool is open source or proprietary OSS, proprietary
Written in… Programming language tool is written in Free text

List of Tools & Sample Datasets to be Assessed

Tools Overview Visualization

The following charts are snapshots from August 2016. The first chart provides a quick overview of the types of tools selected for review. Many are standalone tools or programming languages; others are tools packages, standalone scripts, or computing frameworks.

Count of Type (as of 08-25-2016)

The tools we reviewed also reflect the variety of work associated with metadata assessment. Many are designed to help with assessment across large datasets, while others reflect the work of sharing and testing, statistical computing, or data visualization.

Count of Tool Design Purpose (as of 08-25-2016)


This is a list of citations for the resources, tools, publications, presentations, and other resourced mentioned in the 2016 environmental scan. We continue to actively collect citations of interest in the Metadata Assessment Zotero Group and welcome any additions or updates you would like to offer to that list.

ALA ALCTS (American Library Association Association for Library Collection & Technical Services)/ALA LITA(American Library Association Library Information Technology Association) [now ALA CORE] Metadata Standards Committee. Principles for Evaluating Metadata Standards (draft). 2015-10-27. https://web.archive.org/web/20160303095702/http://metaware.buzz/2015/10/27/draft-principles-for-evaluating-metadata-standards/

ALA ALCTS (American Library Association Association for Library Collection & Technical Services)/ALA LITA(American Library Association Library Information Technology Association) [now ALA CORE] Metadata Standards Committee. Summary of Comments Received on MSC Principles for Evaluating Metadata Standards (blog post). 2016-04-18. https://web.archive.org/web/20160918105442/http://metaware.buzz/2016/04/18/summary-of-comments-received-on-msc-principles-for-evaluating-metadata-standards/

Alemneh, Daniel Gelaw. Understanding User Discovery of ETD: Metadata or Full-Text, How Did They Get There? 2015-09-30. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc725793/

Anaconda, https://www.anaconda.com/

Apache Spark, http://spark.apache.org/

Averkamp, Shawn; Miller, Matt; Rubinow, Sara; Hadro, Josh. Measuring Your Metadata Preconference at Code4Lib 2016 (workshop information). https://web.archive.org/web/20160423172155/https://2016.code4lib.org/workshops/Measuring-Your-Metadata

Chapman, Joyce Celeste. “User Feedback and Cost/Value Analysis of Metadata Creation”. 2010-08-13. http://www2.archivists.org/sites/all/files/saa_description_presentation_2010_chapman.pdf

Charles, Valentine and Stiller, Juliane. Evaluation of Metadata Enrichment Practices in Digital Libraries: Steps towards Better Data Enrichments (slides and video from SWIB 2015). 2015.

Charles, Valentine and Stiller, Juliane. Evaluation of Metadata Enrichment Practices in Digital Libraries. 2015-12-18. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U90Ajgjk6ic https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Henbc0lQ3gerNoWUd5DcPnNq4YxOxDW5SQ7g4f26Py0/edit#heading=h.l2fg46yn5tej

D3, https://d3js.org/

Dalmau, Michelle and Riley, Jenn. Cushman Exposed! Exploiting Controlled Vocabularies to Enhance Browsing and Searching of an Online Photograph Collection. http://www.slideshare.net/jenlrile/cushman-brownbag

Digital Public Library of America: Bulk Metadata Download Feb 2015, http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc502991/

DLF/NSDL Working Group on OAI PMH Best Practices. (2007). Best Practices for OAI PMH DataProvider Implementations and Shareable Metadata. Washington, D.C.: Digital Library Federation. https://old.diglib.org/pubs/dlf108.pdf

DPLA Aggregation tools, https://github.com/ncdhc/dpla-aggregation-tools

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. (2014). DCMI Task Group RDF Application Profiles. https://web.archive.org/web/20160416123658/http://wiki.dublincore.org/index.php/RDF_Application_Profiles

Dushay, N., & Hillmann, D. I. (2003). Analyzing Metadata for Effective Use and Re-Use. Presented at the DCMI International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, Seattle, Washington, USA. https://web.archive.org/web/20160726124542/http://dcpapers.dublincore.org/pubs/article/view/744

eCommons Metadata, https://github.com/cmh2166/eCommonsMetadata

Europeana Pro Data Quality Committee. https://web.archive.org/web/20160901075956/https://pro.europeana.eu/page/data-quality-committee

Europeana Pro. https://pro.europeana.eu/

Europeana. Report and Recommendations from the Task Force on Metadata Quality. 2015-05. http://pro.europeana.eu/files/Europeana_Professional/Publications/Metadata%20Quality%20Report.pdf

Europeana. Task Force on Enrichment and Evaluation’s Final Report. 2015-10-29. http://pro.europeana.eu/files/Europeana_Professional/EuropeanaTech/EuropeanaTech_taskforces/Enrichment_Evaluation/FinalReport_EnrichmentEvaluation_102015.pdf

Fischer, K. S. (2005). Critical Views of LCSH, 1990–2001: The Third Bibliographic Essay. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 41(1), 63–109. https://doi.org/10.1300/J104v41n01_05

Glendon, Ivy. We’ve Gone MAD: Launching a Metadata Analysis & Design Unit at the University of Virginia Library. (slides presented at the ALA ALCTS (American Library Association Association for Library Collection & Technical Services) [now ALA CORE] Metadata Interest Group Meeting at 2015 ALA Annual Conference) 2015. http://connect.ala.org/node/243993

Google Analytics, https://analytics.google.com/

Gueguen, Gretchen; Harper, Corey; Stanton, Chris. Perspectives on Data and Quality (slides from DPLAFest 2016) 2016. http://schd.ws/hosted_files/dplafest2016/69/DPLAfest2016PerspectivesonDataandQuality.pdf

Guinchard, C. (2006). Dublin Core use in libraries: a survey. OCLC Systems & Services: International Digital Library Perspectives, 18(1), 11. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10650750210418190

Hadoop, https://hadoop.apache.org/

Harlow, Christina and Wilson, Heather. Data Remediation: A View from the Trenches. (slides and resources from the 2015 ALA LITA(American Library Association Library Information Technology Association) [now ALA CORE] forum) 2015. https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0ByxEB0pyAt5WOHZrOVJCVXc2X1k

Harlow, Christina. Get Your Recon (slides from Code4Lib 2016). 2016. http://2016.code4lib.org/Get-Your-Recon

Harlow, Christina. Metadata Quality Analysis. (GitHub Repository for Interactive Presentation at Tennessee Sharefest 2015) 2015. https://github.com/cmh2166/ShareFest15MetadataQA

Harper, Corey. Can Metadata be Quantified? (slides presented at 2015 DPLAFest) 2015-04-18. https://schd.ws/hosted_files/dplafest2015/c1/CanMetadataBeQuantifiedSlides.pdf

Harper, Corey. Statistical DPLA: Metadata Counting and Word Analysis (session notes from DLF Forum 2015) 2015-10-28. https://docs.google.com/document/d/1egAKg_Nw2kUvYJbuKOcpOGTTrQ4kIz4v5KYzGVLUEYw/edit#heading=h.c6q1qq3h66in

Haslhofer, B., & Klas, W. (2010). A survey of techniques for achieving metadata interoperability. ACM Computing Surveys. https://doi.org/10.1145/1667062.1667064

Hydra Metadata Interest Group. https://wiki.lyrasis.org/display/samvera/Samvera+Metadata+Interest+Group

Hydra Metrics Interest Group. https://wiki.lyrasis.org/display/samvera/Samvera+Metrics+Interest+Group

Internet Archive Dataset Collection, https://archive.org/details/datasets

Jackson, A., Han, M.-J., Groetsch, K., Mustafoff, M., & Cole, T. W. (2008). Dublin Core Metadata Harvested Through OAI-PMH. Journal of Library Metadata, 8(1), 5–21. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J517v08n01_02

Király, P. (2015, September). A Metadata Quality Assurance Framework. Retrieved from http://pkiraly.github.io/metadata-quality-project-plan.pdf

Koster, L. (2014, November 27). Analysing library data flows for efficient innovation. Retrieved from http://commonplace.net/2014/11/library-data-flows

Koster, Lukas. Datamazed: Analysing library dataflows, data manipulations and data redundancies. (slides presented at ELAG 2015) 2015. http://www.slideshare.net/lukask/datamazed-with-notes

LODrefine, https://github.com/sparkica/LODRefine

Loshin, D. (2013). Building a Data Quality Scorecard for Operational Data Governance. SAS Institute Inc. Retrieved from http://www.sas.com/content/dam/SAS/en_us/doc/whitepaper1/building-data-quality-scorecard-for-operational-data-governance-106025.pdf

Ma, S., Lu, C., Lin, X., & Galloway, M. (2009). Evaluating the metadata quality of the IPL. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 46(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1002/meet.2009.1450460249

Margaritopoulos, T., Margaritopoulos, M., Mavridis, I., & Manitsaris, A. (2008). A Conceptual Framework for Metadata Quality Assessment. Presented at the DCMI International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, Berlin, Germany. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20160818133939/http://dcpapers.dublincore.org/pubs/article/view/923

Metadata Breakers, https://github.com/vphill/metadata_breakers

Najjar, J., & Duval, E. (2006). Actual Use of Learning Objects and Metadata: An Empirical Analysis. TCDL Bulletin, 2(2). Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20170615121655/http://www.ieee-tcdl.org/Bulletin/v2n2/najjar/najjar.html

Neatrour, Anna and Myntti, Jeremy. Automating Controlled Vocabulary Reconciliation. (slides presented at DLF Forum 2015) 2015-10-26. http://www.slideshare.net/aneatrour/automating-controlled-vocabulary-reconciliation

Noh, Y. (2011). A study on metadata elements for web-based reference resources system developed through usability testing. Library Hi Tech, 29(2), 24. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/07378831111138161

Ochoa, X., & Duval, E. (2009). Automatic evaluation of metadata quality in digital repositories. International Journal on Digital Libraries, 10(67). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00799-009-0054-4

Olson, J. E. (2003). Data Quality: The Accuracy Dimension. Morgan Kaufmann. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books/about/Data_Quality.html?id=x8ahL57VOtcC

OpenRefine, http://openrefine.org

Park, E. G. (2007). Building interoperable Canadian architecture collections: initial metadata assessment. The Electronic Library, 25(2), 18. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02640470710741331

Pirmann, C. (2009, Spring). Alternative Subject Languages for Cataloging. Retrieved March 24, 2016. Link no longer available as of October 13, 2020.

Plot.ly, https://plot.ly

Python pandas, http://pandas.pydata.org

R Studio, https://www.rstudio.com

R, https://www.r-project.org

Sicilia, M. A., Garcia, E., Pages, C., Martinez, J. J., & Gutierrez, J. M. (2005). Complete metadata records in learning object repositories: some evidence and requirements. ACM Digital Library, 1(4), 14. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJLT.2005.007152

Simon, A., Vila Suero, D., Hyvönen, E., Guggenheim, E., Svensson, L. G., Freire, N., … Alexiev, V. (2014). EuropeanaTech Task Force on a Multilingual and Semantic Enrichment Strategy: final report (Task Force Report) (p. 44). Europeana. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20170324215427/http://pro.europeana.eu/get-involved/europeana-tech/europeanatech-task-forces/multilingual-and-semantic-enrichment-strategy

SPSS, http://www-01.ibm.com/software/analytics/spss

Tableau, http://www.tableau.com

Tani, A., Candela, L., & Castelli, D. (2013). Dealing with metadata quality: The legacy of digital library efforts. Information Processing & Management, 49(6), 1194–1205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2013.05.003

Tarver, H., Phillips, M., Zavalina, O., & Kizhakkethil, P. (2015). An Exploratory Analysis of Subject Metadata in the Digital Public Library of America. In Proceedings from the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications 2015. Sao Paolo, Brazil.

Task Force on Cost/Value Assessment of Bibliographic Control. Final Report. 2010-06-18. https://web.archive.org/web/20160804063754/http://connect.ala.org/files/7981/costvaluetaskforcereport2010_06_18_pdf_77542.pdf

UNT Libraries Metadata Edit Dataset, http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc304852

Ward, J. H. (2002, November). A Quantitative Analysis of Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) Usage in Data Providers Registered with the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) (Master’s paper). School of Information and Library Science of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. Retrieved from http://ils.unc.edu/MSpapers/2816.pdf

Weidner, Andrew and Wu, Annie. Metadata Quality Control for Content Migration: The Metadata Migration Project at the University of Houston. (presentation from DCMI Global Meetings and Conferences, DC-2015) 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20210727142021/https://dcevents.dublincore.org/IntConf/dc-2015/paper/view/339

Zavalina, O. L. (2014). Complementarity in Subject Metadata in Large-Scale Digital Libraries: A Comparative Analysis. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 52(1), 77–89.

Zavalina, O. L., Kizhakkethil, P., Alemneh, D. G., Phillips, M. E., & Tarver, H. (2015). Building a Framework of Metadata Change to Support Knowledge Management. Journal of Information & Knowledge Management, 14(01). https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219649215500057